14 Zum autoritär-bürokratischen, militärischen und populistischen Korporatismus in Lateinamerika siehe: O’Donnell (Fn. 4); Malloy, James, Hrsg., Authoritarianism and Corporatism in Latin America (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977)Google Scholar, insbesondere die Essays von Malloy, O’Donnell, Kaufman, Skidmore, Mericle und Dietz; Schmitter (fn. 6); Cleaves, Peter, Bureaucratic Politics and Administration in Chile (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975)Google Scholar; Erickson, Kenneth, Corporatism in Brazil (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977)Google Scholar; Kaufman-Purcell (fn. 6); Collier, David, Hrsg., The New Authoritarianism in Latin America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979)Google Scholar; Wiarda, Howard J., Corporatism and Development: The Portuguese Experience (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1977)Google Scholar; Kremmer, Helen, « La dynamique des régimes autoritaires: le cas du Brésil », unpub. (LASA/ASA Conference, Houston, Texas, November 1977). Google Scholar The military dictatorship in Nigeria began with the 1966 coup planned and executed by a group of Nigerian revolutionary nationalist officers that began as a small rebel military cell under Emmanuel Ifeajana, which included Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu, who was the face of the coup attempt involving five other army majors: Timothy Onwuatuegwu, Chris Anuforo, Don Okafor, Adewale Ademoyega and Humphrey Chukwuka, functioned as a secret movement of junior officers in the post-independence period from 1960 to 1966. The conspiracy received support from left-wing intellectuals who rejected conservative elements of society, such as the traditional settlement in northern Nigeria, and attempted to overthrow the Nigerian First Republic. 20 On the development of military rule in Burma, see Silverstein, Joseph, Burma: Military Rule and the Politics of Stagnation (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977), chap. 4. Google Scholar According to Adesina, this year`s milestone also provides an opportunity to chronicle the military`s current revolutionary achievements in solving security challenges across the country. To provide food in large quantities to feed Nigeria`s teeming population, the military launched Operation Feed the Nation in 1976, which turned yellow under the Second Republic. In addition, the communication also received boasting under the military government.
Good road networks and airports have been built, improvements have been made to railways and waterways, port facilities have increased considerably. The first military regime in Nigeria began on September 15. January 1966, which was staged by five (5) majors under the direction of Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. It was a bloody military coup in the annals of Nigerian politics. Prominent politicians such as Prime Minister Alhaji Tafawa Balewa, the Prime Minister of the Western Region, S.L. Akintola, the Minister of Finance, Chief Festus Okotie Eboh, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Prime Minister of the Northern Region and many other senior officers of the armed forces were killed. From the achievements I have spoken about so far, it is clear that the military regime has not only harmed Nigeria. It has also contributed positively to the country. The army has essentially proven that it can also be an instrument capable of maintaining peace and unity in the country. General Ibrahim Babangida was appointed President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and established the Government Council of the Armed Forces.
His reign was the longest in peacetime and his government was typical of the military dictatorships of the 20th century. Babangida promised a return to democracy when he took power, but he ruled Nigeria for eight years when he temporarily handed over power to interim head of state Ernest Shonekan in 1993. In the field of industrialization, the military was responsible for building almost all key industries in Nigeria. These industries include the Ajeokuta and Aladja steel complexes, the Warri and Kaduna refineries. Steel complexes are seen as the basis for building secondary industries that will reduce Nigeria`s dependence on foreign imports. Another notable achievement of the military in Nigeria was the creation of states to replace the then existing region, as it was called in the past. Gowon divided Nigeria into twelve (12) states in May 1967. Seven (7) other states were added by Murtalar in his time and with the creation of two more states by Babangida, Nigeria had a total of twenty-one states. In 1991, Babangida created nine (9) more, then General Abacha created six (6). 2.
Through training, the military is much better able to rise above sectoral and parish interests than any other group in the political system. So the army gives people a sense of belonging. Nevertheless, Nigeria`s foreign policy became weak after the military intervention and lacked momentum. Indeed, the period was marked by political crisis and instability. But in the 1967 civil war, Nigeria pursued a genuine policy of non-alignment. The establishment of states by the military has created an atmosphere of stability, unity and coexistence among Nigerian ethnic groups to guarantee the interests and fundamental rights of all groups, on the basis of equal development and equal opportunities for all, in order to create a true federal system, since no state would be able to dominate the country. In foreign policy, a considerable and lasting effect was achieved during the military regime. In the first republic, Nigerian foreign policy focused on Britain and the wealth of Africa.